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  Think Big – Now Think Even Bigger
  Join Us at Internet of Things at Cloud Expo, November 11-13,
at the Javits Center!

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.

All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades.

With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend Internet of Things at Cloud Expo in New York City. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!

Delegates to Internet of Things at Cloud Expo will be able to attend eight separate, information-packed tracks:

  • Enterprise Cloud
  • Digital Transformation
  • The API Enterprise | Mobility & Security
  • DevOps | Containers & Microservices
  • Cognitive Computing | AI, ML, DL
  • Big Data | Analytics
  • IoT | IIoT | Smart Cities
  • Hot Topics | FinTech | WebRTC

There are 120 breakout sessions in all, with Keynotes, General Sessions, and Power Panels adding to three days of incredibly rich presentations and content.

We'll see you in New York!

Day 3 Keynote at @ThingsExpo | Chris Matthieu, CTO of Octoblu
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu's platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).
  Themes & Topics to Be Discussed

Consumer IoT
• Wearables
• Smart Appliances
• Smart Cars
• Smartphones 2.0
• Automation
• Smart Travel
• Personal Fitness
• Health Care
• Personalized Marketing
• Customized Shopping
• Personal Finance
• The Digital Divide
• Mobile Cash & Markets
• Games & The IoT
• The Future of Education
• Virtual Reality

Enterprise IoT
• The Business Case for
x IoT
• Smart Grids
• Smart Cities
• Smart Transportation
• The Smart Home
• M2M
• Authentication/Security
• Wiring the IoT
• The Internet of
x Everything
• Digital Transformation
x of Enterprise IT
• Agriculture
• Transportation
• Manufacturing
• Local & State
x Government
• Federal Government

IoT Developers | WebRTC Summit
• Eclipse Foundation
• Cloud Foundry
• Linux Containers
• Node-Red
• Open Source Hardware
• Ajax and the IoT
• Leveraging SOA
• Multi-Cloud IoT
• Evolving Standards
• WebSockets
• Security & Privacy
x Protocols
• GPS & Proximity
x Services
• Bluetooth/RFID/etc
• Nest Labs

The Top Keynotes, the Best Sessions, a Rock Star Faculty and the Most Qualified Delegates of ANY Internet of Things Event!

The future of computing lies in these things. As computing takes a much more active role in our lives it will at the same time become much more invisible. Internet of Things Expo will address the challenges in getting from where we are today to this future.
The high-energy event is a must-attend for senior technologists from CEOs on down – including CIOs, CTOs, directors of infrastructure, VPs of technology, IT directors and managers, network and storage managers, network engineers, enterprise architects, and communications and networking specialists.

@ThingsExpo Power Panel | The World's Many IoTs: Which Are the Most Important?
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound effect on the world, and what should we expect to see over the next couple of years.
Benefits of Attending the Three-Day Technical Program
  LEARNexactly why Internet of Things is relevant today from an economic, business and technology standpoint.
  HEAR first-hand from industry experts the common issues and requirements for creating a platform for the Internet of Things.
  SEE what new tools and approaches the Internet of Things requires.
  DISCOVER how to drive a distributed approach to the Internet of Things, where applications move to the data.
  FIND OUThow the vast volumes of new data produced by the Internet of Things provides a valuable new source of business insight through advanced analytical techniques.
  MASTER how the ongoing development of smart cities, cars, and houses will enhance connectivity infrastructure.
Lunch Power Panel | Microservices & IoT- Moderated by Jason Bloomberg
In this Power Panel at @DevOpsSummit, moderated by Jason Bloomberg, president of Intellyx, panelists Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at Akana; Lori MacVittie, Evangelist for F5 Networks; and Troy Topnik, ActiveState's Technical Product Manager; and Otis Gospodnetic, founder of Sematext; peeled away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud environment, and we must architect and code accordingly. At the very least, you'll have no problem filling in your buzzword bingo cards.

Binary Showdown
Binary Showdown

On September 24 the W3C set in motion a process that could radically change not only how XML is used and how XML-based applications are developed - but XML itself right down to its beloved (or detested) pointyangle brackets. "The W3C Workshop on Binary Interchange of XML Information Items Sets" brought together 34 interested parties divided among binary revolutionaries, pointyangle- bracket fundamentalists, and a number of fence-sitters to try to form a community consensus and to decide whether or not to move forward to a full W3C activity and a binary XML Recommendation.

The price of admission to the fracas was a position paper, solicited both from within the W3C membership and from without. The positions can be reduced to four basic degrees of support or opposition to the idea the time has come for a standard Binary XML format:
1.  Urgently, compellingly, immediately required. Binary XML must be standardized with or without the W3C, but preferably with.
2.  Binary XML is a clear necessity, but adequate study and time must be taken to ensure a robust standard meeting a plethora of needs.
3.  Not too sure about this…approach with great caution and don't undo the things that have made XML so successful. Interoperability is concern #1.
4.  Not this stupid idea again! Moore's Law will solve this "problem" far faster than the W3C could.

Here is the breakdown of the how the workshop participants saw this fundamental question:

  • Urgent   17
  • Necessity   12
  • Cautious   3
  • Against   2

    Workshop participants can be grouped into eight technology sectors. The positions taken showed clear segmentation across the various areas of interest as shown in Table 1.

    The revolutionaries ready to storm the barricades come from the new applications for XML: wireless, digital broadcasting, and GIS. The independents (consultants, individual technologists, and none-of-the-above) showed only slightly less penchant for quick action. The more querulous old guard seems to consist of those with a greater investment in legacy XML: the technology powerhouses, database vendors, and those invovled with imaging and document applications.

    I dug up the annual revenue figures for the workshop participants and calculated a revenue-weighted score for the perceived urgency of standardizing binary XML. Revenue is usually a general gauge of stake in the current technology and, as one would expect, money comes down on the side of caution. Revenue-weighted mean score: 2.376

    Sometimes it doesn't matter what the industry as a whole wants to do but only what the industry gorillas want. So I looked separately at the positions of those companies with $30 billion U.S. revenue and above.

  • Urgent   0
  • Necessity   3 (Siemens, France Telecom, Nokia)
  • Cautious   1 (IBM)
  • Against   1 (Microsoft)

    Why does XML need a binary format? Workshop participants identified eight major reasons:
    1.  Bandwidth: How many bits it takes to send an XML message across a wireless link. Wireless devices have limited bandwidth and greater use of bandwidth increases transmission time and the error rate. Binary XML can reduce the bandwidth needed to send an XML message. Compression techniques include redundancy elimination (e.g., putting common strings in a string table) or domain-based (using knowledge of the structure derived from the schema to encode content more efficiently).
    2.  Processing speed/parsing: Generally, XML is too slow! Binary XML addresses this problem by making the data format closer to datatypes used in programming languages and by using compression techniques to reduce the number of bits processed.
    3.  Progressive download/streaming: Eliminates the necessity of reading the entire XML document before it can be processed, supporting applications such as partial rendering, packetization, and interleaving.
    4.  Random access: Various techniques for including an index of the XML document, enabling direct access to particular sections of interest without sequential processing of the document.
    5.  Dynamic update: Various techniques, such as delta records, for updating an XML document without modifying the original, eliminating stream rewriting or tree node manipulations.
    6.  New data types: Direct support for various data types useful in non-text based applications of XML, including native numeric data types, arrays, and graphs.
    7.  Link support: Fundamental support for XLINK or other hyperlink primitives in core XML.
    8.  Compactness: Similar to limited-bandwidth approaches but the applications usually involve archiving of very large amounts of data. En/decode time may not be as big an issue as maximal compression of the data.

    How important was each of these objectives for Binary XML to the workshop participants? Given the strong turnout from the wireless world, it isn't surprising that bandwidth was the overwhelming concern (see Table 2).

    Bandwidth and processing speed are not necessarily everyone's top two objectives. Eleven participants rated bandwidth as extremely important but either stated that they didn't care at all about processing speed or rated it much lower than bandwidth. Eight participants took the corresponding position in favor of processing speed and were lukewarm on the issue of bandwidth. There is a clear fracture in the interests of advocates for Binary XML. This is further illustrated by Table 3, which shows the percentage of participants within each technology domain that expressed strong or moderate preference for each objective of Binary XML.

    This was not a discussion in the abstract, akin to calculating angels dancing on pins: no less than 18 existing Binary XML formats were presented. Yes, Binary XML exists today - the only question is whether the W3C will Recommend it! Of these 18 some 12 formats could qualify as "proposals"; the other 6 were described as proprietary or special purpose and not suitable for a standard. Two formats were in use by multiple participants: ASN.1 and MPEG-7 BiM. ASN.1 is a mature standard used in the telecommunications sector, which has added an XML-specific XML Schema to ASN.1 mapping. MPEG-7 BiM has also come from an established standards body, in this case in the video/television/multimedia area, which has expanded its mantle to encompass XML. A numerically oriented Binary XML, BXML from the Open GIS Consortium, was the third format which, with the previous two, was more-or-less purported to be "the answer" by its advocates. The remaining 9 Binary XML proposals were offered more in the spirit of interesting experiments that could inform the work of creating the ultimate Binary XML representation. A dichotomy in approaches to Binary XML emerged, consisting on one side of techniques that require use of the schema and on the other techniques where the Binary XML file is selfdescribing. Some, like Sun, felt that both techniques were needed and proposed a model which included both. Table 4 categorizes all binary formats proposed in the workshop.

    A total of 14 benchmarks were presented. In the absence of a uniform methodology, data, and objectives for the format it isn't possible to say much more than that some interesting results were shown. Small XML files can be compressed with domain-specific techniques vastly better than with GZIP, no question about it. Encoding and decoding of Binary XML can be much faster than binding standard XML to programming data structures, but the numbers are fairly hazy. Everything else is very hazy if not positively chimeric. There is no credible data, for example, on the performance impact of random access or dynamic updates techniques that might be supported by a binary XML format.

    One Format to Rule Them All
    The W3C did a superlative job of ensuring that all opinions were heard from both the great and small and from non-W3C members as well as W3C members. On the first day papers selected by the W3C were presented by their authors to the entire assembly. All four categories of positions were given the podium, and presenters ranged from crusty individuals to representatives of the technology megaliths. On the second day the rest of the participants had a chance to present their positions to breakout groups and return to the afternoon plenary with a list of requirements for Binary XML. The final morning was spent in further discussion of the pros and cons of a Binary XML future and on various possible processes for deciding what, if anything, to do next.

    The tenor of the workshop was, arguably, dominated by the perspectives of the large technology vendors, with Microsoft and IBM, in particular, repeatedly cautioning participants not to throw away XML's greatest strengths - universality, interoperability, and simplicity - for the performance crisis du jour. Moore's Law was invoked again and again - along with the rejoinder that mobile device batteries do not obey Moore's Law.

    There was universal agreement that the objectives and performance measurement criteria for Binary XML had to be formalized, and that any standard needed to have solid benchmarking behind it.

    Most participants agreed that preserving XML's interoperability was of paramount importance and that the logical consequence of this imperative was that there must be no more than one Binary XML format, which will co-exist with and be easily translatable to and from standard XML. Only a few participants expressed confidence that one format would fit the bill (BiM advocate Expway and esXML proponents Stephen Williams, for two examples); others expressed open skepticism, which tended to spread quite a pall of gloom. Some were determined that the "one format" would be the one that met their needs and which were the only needs that really mattered.

    And now the W3C will go off and apply scientific techniques such as hepatoscopy to workshop data and come back with a decision.

    How I Read the Sheep's Liver
    John Schneider of AgileDelta invoked his modified version of Metcalfe's Law to argue for enabling a new universe of XML applications with Binary XML: "the value of information exposed as XML will increase exponentially with the number of systems able to access it." Ironically, the same principle was invoked by those arguing against Binary XML. They felt that the growth of XML would slow and perhaps be permanently stunted by introducing an additional and much more complex format.

    I think the numbers are with the Binary XML advocates: the wireless world is everywhere and wireless has been unequivocal about needing to standardize on a more efficient XML representation. A wireless-only standard already exists, WBXML, but the industry's current vision of the world is one where the wirelessness of a device is perfectly transparent to the network. Some of the not-wireless objectives for a Binary XML format are extremely interesting, but it does not appear that they have either the constituency or the hard data to prove their worth today. In standardizing Binary XML suitable for wireless platforms it will not be possible to trade bandwidth efficiency for features that everyone wants and thereby achieve consensus. But if there isn't one format that solves all problems there maybe some consolation for the losers. The Binary XML that emerges should give us a better core for implementing features for complex high-performance XML processing in the application layer.

    About Michael Leventhal
    Michael Leventhal is guiding the development of a new generation of hardware-based XML acceleration products as director, XML Technology, for Tarari ( He has architected and led numerous projects in the area of Web applications and infrastructure and XML over the last 10 years, including a Web services framework and a Mozilla-based browser, DocZilla. He has spoken at numerous conferences, developed and taught the first university-level course in XML and wrote the first book on XML software development for the Internet.

    About Eric Lemoine
    Eric Lemoine is an XML architect, Tarari.

    About Stephen Williams
    Stephen Williams is senior technical director, HPTi, and founder of

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